CMH Publication Guidelines


Author's Style Guide for
Military Collector & Historian and
Military Uniforms in America

This style guide is an incomplete work, and there is every indication that it will remain so. The editorial staffs of both Company publications have set down and codified all the problems of style—doing the correct thing in the correct place—that they have met with collectively over the course of some two decades. But there is no certain way all such problems can be anticipated, and more will surely continue to arise.

The final authority for this guide remains Kate L. Turabian, A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Disserta­tions, 6th edition (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1996), and the serious contributor is advised to acquire a copy. Even so, we have used only a small portion of this redoubtable book, the greater part being either too general in nature or too esoteric for our needs.

We do not expect the guide to be taken and digested in one gulp, which is why it is broken down into sections and subsections. We are confident, though, that the Company's contributing authors will find it a useful reference tool, and that is all we can reasonably hope for.


Abbreviations should be kept to a minimum. An exception would be the use of U.S. in a unit designation. Another would be the name of a state's National Guard organization where the abbreviation is common and the complete name might be unwieldy: NG, SNY.

The name of a state as part of the unit designation is spelled out. The District of Columbia may be abbreviated to D.C. if spelling it out proves to be impracticable.

Give a span of dates in its entirety: 1775–1781. The Latin circa may be abbreviated as ca.

Military Collector & Historian

The subject matter and the time frame should be indicated in the title. Further embellishment may be used, but it should be brief and discrete.

The time frame may be given as a date, or by referring to a military event, such as a major conflict, whose date is well known.

Military Uniforms in America

The title is limited to the unit designation and the date. The unit designation may be preceded by a qualification: Dress Uni­form, United States Navy….

Neither the title nor the unit designation begins with an initial The.

In general, the sequence progresses from the smallest unit to the largest: Captain, Grenadier Company, 17th Regiment of Foot:….

In the title, the unit designation is not spelled out but given with an ordinal numeral: 6th Regiment. An exception would be the designation of a corps, which is given in roman numerals: VI Corps.

An alternate name of a unit is given in parentheses: Company A, 45th U.S. Infantry Regiment (Philippine Scouts)

A nickname is enclosed in quotation marks and parentheses: 65th U.S. Infantry Regiment ("The Borinqueneers")… Note that the initial The may be used in nicknames.


Contributors should use their formal given names unless they are well known professionally by another style.

Military Collector & Historian

The word By is no longer used as part of the byline.

The names of collaborating authors appear in the byline side by side. Artists and photographers who provide custom work, however, are credited either in the captions of their pictures or at the end of the text.

If an author holds a military rank or naval rating, it may appear in his byline. The title appears first, then the author's name and branch of service, and finally his current status abbreviated in parentheses: Lt. Col. John Evans, USA (Ret.).

Avoid privately conferred or honorary titles of rank. The Company recognizes only those derived from service in the armed forces of the United States (including state forces) or from those of another country.

Reviews: The names of the reviewer(s) appear at the end of the text. It has become standard practice for reviewer(s) to use their names only, without military or civilian titles or appendages showing degrees.

Military Uniforms in America

The names of the contributors appear at the end of the text. The name of the plate's artist always appears first, followed by the name(s) of the author(s).

It has become standard MUIA practice for contributors to use their names only, without military or civilian titles or append­ages showing degrees.


Special information for Military Uniforms in America

The text of an MUIA plate must be short enough to be printed on one page, in a type size no smaller than nine points for the body and seven points for the endnotes.

Give the complete name of the unit in the body of the text, preferably in the first paragraph.

Previous MUIA plates about the unit should be noted, either in the body of the text or in the endnotes.

The organization and history of the unit should be summed up briefly early in the text. Bear in mind that the dress of the unit is of paramount importance.

Include colors in any general description of the unit's dress. This is for the benefit of researchers who might not have access to the color plate.

(The remainder of the section applies to both publications.)

General information

Spelling should agree with the best American (i.e., United States) usage and must be consistent-except, of course, in quotations, where the original is followed exactly.

The dictionary often used by the editorial staff has been The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. Any recognized American desk dictionary, such as Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, would serve as well. Use the first spelling where there is a choice.

Use the modern American gray for spelling that color generi­cally. If the older form, grey, is part of a unit designation it is to be kept: Washington Greys.

Use the American preference for caliber and accouterments.

When using a foreign word or phrase, check to see if it has become part of the English language. If not, it should be italicized.

Endnote references are in superscript, placed at the end of a sentence. If more than one piece of information in a sentence needs to be cited, the sources are grouped in the note in the same order as the information appears in the sentence.

The endnote reference is not followed by a period, nor is it enclosed in parentheses or brackets.

Units and branches of service

The numerical designation of a unit may be spelled out or given as an ordinal number: Sixth Regiment, 6th Regiment. Whichever form is chosen, however, it is used consistently. An exception would be the designation of a corps, which is given in roman numerals: VI Corps.

United States is abbreviated as U.S. in a small unit designa­tion: company, battalion, regiment. It may or may not be abbreviated in larger size units, depending on the context.

Types of units are not abbreviated, but spelled out: company, battalion, regiment.

Types of units are not capitalized when they are used geneti­cally: The regiment fought at Shiloh.

A unit is considered to be a singular noun, and so it takes a singular pronoun: The company received its rations.

The names of the branches of service and other official agencies are abbreviated, preferably after one spelled-out use: USA, USN, USAF, USMC, CSA, CSN, CSMC, NATO, et al. Such abbreviations are in full capitals, with no periods.

Ships and aircraft

The name of a vessel or craft is always given in italics, even where it appears in a quotation and the source does not use italics.

Where the name of a vessel is preceded by initials such as SS, USS or HMS, the initials are not given in italics nor do they take periods.

A vessel is referred to using feminine pronouns: she, her.

Ranks, ratings, and civilian titles

When an individual is introduced, give his full rank and full name, with the rank abbreviated: Lt. Col. George A. Custer. Also give his identity in the context of the narrative: com­mander of the 7th Cavalry. An exception would be where a famous name is instantly recognizable in the context of the narrative: President Lincoln or General Lee in an article about the Civil War.

Brevet rank is given in parentheses directly following the permanent rank: Capt. (Bvt. Maj.) John Evans.

Where an individual appears in the text a second time, spell out the rank if it precedes the family name alone. In this case, the rank is shortened to its principal element: Lieutenant Evans (whether a first lieutenant or a second lieutenant). Often the last name alone will suffice.

Modern acronyms (e.g., CINCPAC) may be used in a suitable context, provided they are reasonably well known. Avoid anachronisms, however; Commodore Sloat, for example, should not be described as CINCPAC in an article about the Mexican-American War.

Ranks and ratings are not capitalized where they are used in generically, but they are spelled out in full: The company contained two lieutenants.

Some of the above principles apply as well to civilian titles: Dr., Pres., Gov. Civilian courtesies are generally not used: Mr., Mrs., Miss. An exception would be where a married woman is identified by her husband's name: Mrs. John Evans, or Mrs. Evans (the abbreviation Mrs. is never spelled out, nor is Dr.). If an unmarried woman appears a second time, she may be given the courtesy: Miss Evans.

Battles, campaigns, and wars

Capitalize the names of battles, campaigns and wars: the Battle of Trenton, the Atlanta Campaign. Do not capitalize where they appear generically: The battle raged all morning. He served for the entire war.

The major wars of the United States and the former colonies are King George's War; the French and Indian War; the American Revolution, or the Revolutionary War, or the War for Independence; the War of 1812; the Mexican War, or the Mexican-American War; the Civil War, or the War Between the States; the Spanish-American War; the First World War, or World War I; the Second World War, or World War II; the Korean War; the Vietnam War; the Gulf War, or Desert Storm; Operation Enduring Freedom; Operation Iraqi Freedom. All these forms are acceptable.

The term Indian Wars generally refers to conflicts between the United States and various native tribes in the West from the 1860s to the 1890s.

Geographical names

Spell out the names of countries, states, counties, provinces, territories, bodies of water, mountains, and so forth, the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) excepted. This includes the United States, which is spelled out except where it is used as part of a unit designation. When it is abbreviated, the form U.S. is used with periods and with no space between the letters.

Spell out the prefixes of place names: Fort Wayne, Mount Vernon, except where common usage is otherwise: St. Louis. Where the name of a state is used with a city it is followed by a comma: They marched to Macon, Georgia, in August.

The state name need not be used where the name of a city is well known or is identifiable in the context of the narrative. Use it, however, where there might be doubt or ambiguity: Columbus, Georgia, versus Columbus, Ohio. Use the modern form of a place name: Charleston rather than Charles Town.

Use the modern English-language form of a place name in another country or a former jurisdiction: Que­bec rather than Québec; Louisiana rather than Louisiane (French) or Luisiana (Spanish). Exceptions, of course, would be where places still uses their Indian, French or Spanish names: Chicago, Des Moines, San Francisco.


Except when A.M. or P.M is used, time of day should be spelled out: They turned out at six-thirty in the morning. Otherwise, use numerals followed by A.M. or P.M.: 6:30 A.M. Midnight is given as 12:00 P.M.; noon as 12:00 M. ("merid­ian").

Give dates by day, month and year: 21 April 1836. Ordinal numerals are not used, nor are there any commas. There are no commas even when the day is omitted: April 1836.

When the day alone is given, it should be spelled out: He arrived on the twelfth.

Spell out the names of the months and the days of the week.

Decades are generally given numerically, without an apostro­phe: the 1860s. Where the context is clear, the decade may be shortened and written out: The war raged through the early sixties. There is no apostrophe preceding sixties.

Centuries are spelled out, in lowercase: the eighteenth cen­tury. A hyphen is provided when the century is used as an adjective: eighteenth-century technology.


Spell out all cardinal numbers through one hundred, except in a series of related numbers: A company consisted of 1 captain, 2 lieutenants, 4 sergeants, and 50 privates.

Spell out all ordinal numbers through one hundred, except for those appearing as part of a unit designation: 22d Infantry Regiment. The numeral form of the ordinals second and third adds d alone (2d, 3d) and not nd or rd (2nd, 3rd).

Do not use superscript in ordinal numbers. The entire number appears in plain text.

Spell out whole numbers followed by hundred, thousand, or million when the amount can be expressed in two words; otherwise use numerals.

For the most part, in numbers of one thousand or more, the thousands are marked off with commas: 1,125.

Do not begin a sentence with a numeral, even where there are numerals in the rest of the sentence. Spell out the numeral, or recast the sentence.

Use numerals to express decimal fractions and percentages. The word percent should be written out.

Form plurals of numbers by adding s alone (not apostrophe and s): There were two .38 caliber pistols and three .45s.

A series of figure numbers is divided by commas and does not include the word and before the final number: FIGs 3, 4, 5.


In general, spell out expressions of measurement, but numer­als may be used in the descriptions of uniforms and other artifacts. Numerals are recommended where fractions are involved.

A measurement is hyphenated when it is used as an adjective: 6-pound shot (but, 10 percent increase).

It is preferable to use U.S. Customary units for measurements of length, weight, liquid measure, etc. If metric units are used, give the customary equivalents in parentheses. However, metric units may be used alone for small measurements: millimeters (mm), milligrams (mg), etc.

Avoid using foot marks and inch marks, but numerals may be used for giving complicated dimensions: 10 feet 5 inches by 3 feet 7 inches. There are no commas.

It is preferable to give temperature readings in degrees Fahr­enheit. If a Celsius reading is used, give the Fahrenheit equivalent in parentheses.

Muzzle-loading artillery pieces are called by the weight of the shot they fire, using a numeral followed by a hyphen: 12-pounder, 24-pounder. The term may also be used as an adjective: 18-pounder long guns.


Quoted passages take double quotation marks at the beginning ("open quotes") and at the end ("close quotes"). For a quota­tion within a quotation, single marks are used. Periods and commas are placed inside quotation marks, even where the marks enclose a single letter or numeral. Semico­lons and colons go outside. Question marks and exclamation points are placed outside as well, unless the mark is part of the quotation.

Exact quotations should follow precisely the wording, spell­ing, capitalization, and punctuation of the original, with these exceptions: (1) If the quotation is set off from the text by a comma, period, or colon, the first word is capitalized even if it is lowercase in the original. (2) Conversely, if there is no such comma, period, or colon, the first word is lowercase even if it is capitalized in the original.

An omission within a sentence is shown by ellipsis points—three period dots—preceded and followed by a single space. The periods should be unspaced, following the style of the ellipsis character on a computer keyboard (whose use is recommended).

An omission following a sentence is indicated by four dots, the first one representing the period of the sentence. If the sen­tence ends in a question mark or exclamation point, three dots immediately follow the mark.

In general, no ellipsis points are used before or after an obviously incomplete sentence enclosed in quotation marks. Words of explanation, clarification, or correction that are inserted into a quotation must be enclosed in brackets. Avoid using parentheses for this purpose.

To assure the reader that any error was in the original, the italicized Latin word sic may be placed in brackets after the error. Avoid overuse. Quotations from obviously archaic or nonstandard writing should not be strewn with [sic].

The reader is made aware of words in a quotation that are italicized for emphasis by a parenthetical note following the quotation: (emphasis added). This note becomes part of the sentence that contains the quotation.

Where a quotation will run longer than three lines, it is set off as a separate paragraph called a block quotation. The entire paragraph is indented from the left margin.

If a block quotation begins with a complete sentence, it is treated as a paragraph and the first line is further indented. The text that precedes it ends with a period or a colon.

If a block quotation begins in the middle of a sentence it is preceded by an ellipsis of three dots, the first word is lower­case, and there is no further indentation of the first line. The text that precedes it ends with either no punctuation or a comma.

An endnote reference always appears at the end of a block quotation.


The last paragraph of a text may be used to acknowledge assistance received from individuals or organizations.

Use the formal given name of each individual, unless there is some compelling reason for not doing so. If such is the case, use the formal given name, but place the diminutive or nick­name in quotation marks just before the family name: James W. "Jimmy" Smith.


Where there is more than one table, each is lettered consecu­tively: TABLE A, TABLE B. The word TABLE is fully capital­ized and the identifying letter is followed by a period. This may or may not be followed by a title.

If a table flows with and is part of the text, the source of its information may be cited in the endnotes. If it stands alone, the source is given at the end of the table by using asterisks.


Where there is more than one figure (photograph or line art), each is numbered: FIG 1, FIG 2. The abbreviation FIG is fully capitalized, but is not followed by a period; the numeral is followed by a period. The picture caption itself follows on the same line.

If the source of information in a caption must be given, it cannot be cited in the endnotes. The source is given in parentheses immediately following the last sentence, using the method laid down in the Endnotes section of this guide. If the source appears in the endnotes, use a shortened title (see the Subsequent References subsection).

Immediately following all the other information, in the same paragraph, a credit line begins with the words, Courtesy of.… This is followed by the name of the organization or individual who provided the picture for publication. Note that most organizations require a credit line, even if a charge was made for their service.

If the picture is owned by the author, no credit line is neces­sary, although the information, Author's collection may be given if desired.

If a custom illustration or photograph is provided, the name of the artist or photographer should be noted.


General information

The exceptions to the methods of citation are many and varied, and only the more widely used forms can be given here. It is recommended that Turabian's Manual for Writers be con- suited. Chapter 8 covers the subject of notes in detail.

The endnotes of MC&H articles begin with the heading Notes. There is no heading for the endnotes of MUIA texts.

Do not use superscript for endnote numbers. The number is in plain text, followed by a period. Do not enclose it in parenthe­ses or brackets.

Where abbreviations are not allowed in the text, they are allowed in the endnotes and should be used.

All the numbered parts of published works are cited in arabic numerals, including volume numbers. An exception would be preliminary pages numbered with lowercase roman numerals. For the most part, volume numbers and page numbers appear alone and are not preceded by v., vol., p. or pp.

A series of page numbers is divided by commas and does not include the word and before the final number: 3, 6, 10-13,19.

The names of authors creditors are presented in normal order, given name first and ending with the family name

The Government Printing Office is always given as an abbre­viation: GPO.


The information generally appears in this order: author or editor, title, city of publication, publishing agency, year of publication, volume number, page number(s). Example: John E. Smith, ed., The Military Life (New York: Jones Publishing, 1986), 2: 36-37.

In a multivolume work where all the volumes have the same title but are published in different years, the volume number is placed just before the facts of publication: Worthington C. Ford, ed., Journals of the Continental Congress, 1774–1783, 4 (Washington: Library of Congress, 1906), 119-122.

Where the author's name appears in the title, the editor's name follows the title: The Writings of George Washington, ed. John C. Fitzpatrick

Where the city of publication is not well known or ambiguous, it is followed by the standard abbreviation of the state: Salem, Ore. The two letter postal abreviation is not used.

Where the publishing agency is not given, the city of publica­tion is followed by a comma rather than a colon: (New York, 1986)...

Where a book is self-published, the publishing agency is replaced with by the author. (Harrisburg, by the author, 1986)...

Books published electronically should follow the format for Electronic Documents below.


The information generally appears in this order: author, title of the article, title of the journal, volume or issue number (or both), month or season of publication, year of publication, page number(s). Example: John E. Smith, "The Military Life of a Soldier of Fortune," Journal of the Upper Midwest, 23, no. 2 (Slimmer 1986): 12-13.

Military Collector and Historian is always cited in its own pages by its initials, MC&H.

Journals published electronically should follow the format for Electronic Documents below.


It is assumed that most citations will be from contemporane­ous newspapers containing only one section. The information generally appears in this order: city, state (when necessary), name of the newspaper, date. Example: New Orleans Pica­yune, 21 Jan. 1863. Any initial The is omitted. No page numbers are required.

If the city is not well known or ambiguous, it is followed by the two-letter postal abbreviation of the state in parentheses: Liverpool (NY) Standard.

Colonial and other early newspapers that predate the era of "city" papers are given with the italicized name followed by the name of the city in parentheses: Pennsylvania Gazette (Philadelphia).

Newspapers published electronically should follow the format for Electronic Documents below.

Electronic Documents

Citations of electronic documents follow the same general form as citations for printed materials: authorand titleof the item; name and description of the source cited, whether CD-ROM or other physical form, or an on-line source; city of publication, if any; publisher or vendor (or both); date of publication or date of access (or both); and identifying numbers or pathway to access the material.

Citations to material previously issued in print should include the same information and use the same style as any references to books and periodicals, as well as providing the additonal information necessary to locate the electronic version: American Archives: Fourth and Fifth Series, ed. Peter Force. Washington, D.C., 1848–1853 [CD-ROM], Fine Books Company, n.d.

Because the online sources may be continuously revised, it is important to give the precise date of access: Soldiers of the First World War (1914–1918)," National Archives of Canada; available from; Internet; accessed 29 October 2003.

Encyclopedias and dictionaries

The information in a citation for an alphabetized publication generally appears in this order: title, edition, s.v. (for sub verbo: "under the word"), entry. Example: The Harper Ency­clopedia of Military Biography, 1995 ed., s.v. "Kearny, Philip." No facts of publication or page numbers are required.

MUIA plates

The information for citing a colored plate appears in this order: artist and author, title enclosed in quotation marks, MUIA, plate number, year of publication in parentheses: H. Charles McBarron Jr. and Frederick P. Todd, "1st U.S. Artil­lery Regiment, 1834-1851," MUIA, pl. 13 (1949).

Texts and line art are cited the same way as other MC&H articles (see Journals subsection). Give the artist's name as well as the author's.

Public documents and other manuscripts

Documents by definition are not published sources; titles are enclosed in double quotation marks and not italicized. Cita­tions should use exactly the kind of numerals found in the source.

The general formula is to begin with the specific item being cited and progress from that point to the collection, the depository, and the location.

The information for citing a document in the National Ar­chives appears in this order: document, file unit, series, subgroup, record group, National Archives, Washington, D.C. The words Record Group are capitalized and followed by the number: Record Group 93.

Subsequent citations of the record group and repository are given as RG 93, NA.

The information for citing a document in a National Archives microfilm appears in this order: document title; series; (National Archives Microfilm Publication microcopy number [e.g., M246], roll number) in parentheses; National Archives, Washington, D.C.

A short guide for citing the National Archives appears in General Information Leaflet 17: Citing Records in the Na­tional Archives of the United States. This guide is available online from

The information for citing a document in the Public Record Office is given in this order: document, War Office (e.g.), class number, volume number: pages, Public Record Office, Great Britain.

Private correspondence

Give the writer's full name followed by the recipient and then the date: Charles Smith to the author, 1 July 1997.

Subsequent references

With no intervening references, a second mention of the same work requires only Ibid. The same work with a different page adds the new page number(s): Ibid., 68. Note that ibid, is not italicized and is an abbreviation followed by a period.

With intervening references, a work is subsequently cited by giving the author's name, a shortened title, and the page reference: Smith, Military Life, 1: 13.

Where there are a total of ten endnotes or fewer, the original citation need not be adjusted. Where there are more than ten endnotes, unless there is no possibility of inconvenience or confusion, the original citation gives the form of the shortened title enclosed in parentheses immediately following the page numbers of the citation: John E. Smith, ed., The Military Life (New York: Jones Publishing, 1986), 2:36-37 (hereafter cited as Smith, Military Life).

Book Reviews

The information in the lead paragraph is given in separate sentences: The italicized title followed by the author's name. The name and address of the publisher. The year of publica­tion. Information about the book (hardcover or softcover, number of pages, inclusion of illustrations, maps, etc.). The price plus the cost of shipping. The ISBN number.

The reviewer's formal name appears at the end of the review.

Misc. References

Our organization is given as the Company of Military Histo­rians, the Company, or CMH (note the initial The is not capital­ized).

Within the pages of the Company journal (familiarly called "the Journal"), Military Collector & Historian is referred to as MC&H (note the use of the ampersand). Military Uniforms in America is referred to as MUIA. In whichever form, the names of the Company publications are always italicized.

Company colleagues are identified as members or fellows. Member is capitalized when used as a title (Member John Doe) but not when it is used generically (John Doe is a member). Fellow is capitalized in every case. Modifications such as Company Fellow or CMH Fellow should be avoided.

Abbreviations for Military Ranks and Naval Ratings

Abbreviations for military officers are: Ens. (for Ensign: archaic), 2d Lt., 1st Lt., Capt., Maj., Lt. Col., Col., Brig. Gen., Maj. Gen., Lt. Gen., Gen. These are used for armies in general where appropriate and for the United States Air Force and Marine Corps.

Abbreviations for naval officers are: Midn. (for Midshipman: archaic), Ens., Lt.(jg), Lt., Lt. Comdr., Comdr., Capt., Commo. (for Commodore: archaic), Rear Adm., Vice Adm., Adm. These are used for navies in general where appropriate and for the United States Coast Guard.

Abbreviations for military enlisted ranks are: Pvt., Pfc., Sp4c, Cpl., Sgt., S.Sgt., Sfc., M.Sgt., 1st Sgt., Sgt. Maj. Warrant officers are WO or CWO (generic), WO1, CWO2 through CWO5. These abbreviations are used for armies in general and, with some exceptions, for the USAF and USMC. Special abbreviations for the USAF are: Amn. (for Airman), A1c., T.Sgt., Sr. M.Sgt. Special abbreviations for the USMC are: Lance Cpl., Gunnery Sgt. Warrant officers of the USMC are WO or CWO (generic), W-l through W-5.

Abbreviations for U.S. Navy enlisted ratings are: SA (for Seaman Apprentice), SN (for Seaman), ABS (for Able-Bod­ied Seaman: archaic), PO (for Petty Officer: generic), PO3, PO2, PO1, CPO (for Chief Petty Officer), SCPO (for Senior Chief Petty Officer). Warrant officers are WO or CWO (generic), W-l through W-4. These abbreviations are also used for the USCG.

Other abbreviations are: Adj., Adj. Gen., Q.M., Q.M. Sgt., Q.M. Gen. Brevet is abbreviated Bvt.

Requirements for Images

Glossy color or B&W photos provide the best source material for journal images. They should be at least 5 x 7 inches and no more than 8 x 10 inches.

Do not label on the front of the image; use post-it notes affixed to the rear of the image.

Digital Images

Camera: must produce output at 300 dots per inch (dpi).

Scan: use 300 dpi. For color: use a setting for millions of colors (24 bit); for B&W: scan as grayscale, use 256 levels (8 bit).

Both: image size should be at least 900 pixels wide and 600 pixels high; larger images are preferred. We'd prefer images stored in .tif format, but will take .jpg (.jpeg) images saved at the highest quality setting available. If the only file format available is .jpg, please do not do any processing of the image with your graphics programs; send the raw image. We will crop, adjust levels, etc. Images up to 3 MB in size can be sent as e-mail attachments; above 3 MB use a CD-ROM for transmitting images; those without a CD burner can contact the webmaster to FTP (file transfer protocol) images to the Company server.

Xerographic Copies

This is the least desirable method. Use a machine that has a photograph setting. Do not use a run-of-the-mill office copier designed for copying letters. High quality machines can be found at service bureaus [Yellow pages under Copying and Duplicating Services]. Use high quality paper meant for photographs. If possible, do your copying after the vendor has serviced the machine. While at the service bureau, check out the price for producing a digital image; scanning will produce a better image.

Prepared by Eric I. Manders
Maintained and updated by John K. Robertson



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